Migration guides

The migration guides below offer guidance for dealing with major breaking changes between Strawberry Fields releases.

Version 0.20.0


The replacement of the strawberryfields.configuration module with the XCC Settings class has several consequences. Specifically, Xanadu Cloud credentials are now stored in exactly one location, the path to which depends on your operating system:

  1. Windows: C:\Users\%USERNAME%\AppData\Local\Xanadu\xanadu-cloud\.env

  2. MacOS: /home/$USER/Library/Application\ Support/xanadu-cloud/.env

  3. Linux: /home/$USER/.config/xanadu-cloud/.env

The format of the configuration file has also changed to .env and the names of some options have been updated. For example, the Strawberry Fields v0.19.0 configuration

# config.toml
authentication_token = "Xanadu Cloud API key goes here"
hostname = "platform.strawberryfields.ai"
port = 443
use_ssl = true

is equivalent to the Strawberry Fields v0.20.0 configuration

# .env
XANADU_CLOUD_REFRESH_TOKEN='Xanadu Cloud API key goes here'

Similarly, the names of the configuration environment variables have changed from

# Strawberry Fields v0.19.0
export SF_API_AUTHENTICATION_TOKEN="Xanadu Cloud API key goes here"
export SF_API_HOSTNAME="platform.strawberryfields.ai"
export SF_API_PORT=443
export SF_API_USE_SSL=true


# Strawberry Fields v0.20.0
export XANADU_CLOUD_REFRESH_TOKEN="Xanadu Cloud API key goes here"
export XANADU_CLOUD_HOST="platform.strawberryfields.ai"
export XANADU_CLOUD_TLS=true

Finally, strawberryfields.store_account() has been replaced such that

# Strawberry Fields v0.19.0
import strawberryfields as sf
sf.store_account("Xanadu Cloud API key goes here")


# Strawberry Fields v0.20.0
import xcc
xcc.Settings(REFRESH_TOKEN="Xanadu Cloud API key goes here").save()


In most cases, running the following command is sufficient to configure Strawberry Fields v0.20.0:

$ xcc config set REFRESH_TOKEN "Xanadu Cloud API key goes here"

Command Line Interface

The following table shows the equivalent xcc (v0.20.0) command for each sf (v0.19.0) command:

Strawberry Fields v0.19.0

Strawberry Fields v0.20.0

sf configure --token "foo"

xcc config set REFRESH_TOKEN "foo"

sf --ping

xcc ping

sf run "foo.xbb"

xcc job submit --name "bar" --target "X8_01" --circuit "$(cat foo.xbb)"


Windows PowerShell users should write Get-Content foo.xbb -Raw instead of cat foo.xbb.


All strawberryfields.api.Connection instances must be replaced by their equivalent XCC Connection counterparts. For example, consider the following instantiation of a Xanadu Cloud connection in Strawberry Fields v0.19.0:

from strawberryfields.api import Connection

connection = Connection(
    token="Xanadu Cloud API key goes here",

The (semantically) equivalent code in Strawberry Fields v0.20.0 is

import xcc

connection = xcc.Connection(
    refresh_token="Xanadu Cloud API key goes here",  # See "token" argument above.
    tls=True,                                        # See "use_ssl" argument above.


strawberryfields.api.Job has been replaced with an equivalent XCC Job class. This will affect the object returned when running an asynchronous job on the RemoteEngine. Any code that uses the Job object returned by an asynchronous run will need to be adapted to work with the new xcc.Job.

In Strawberry Fields v0.19.0 this could look as follows:

  >>> job = engine.run_async(program, shots=1)
  >>> job.status
  >>> job.result
  >>> job.refresh()
  >>> job.status
  >>> job.result
  [[0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0]]

In Strawberry Fields v0.20.0, the (semantically) equivalent ``Job`` object would work slightly
  >>> job = engine.run_async(program, shots=1)
  >>> job.status
  >>> job.wait()
  >>> job.status
  >>> job.result
  {'output': [array([[0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0]])]}

The ``job.wait()`` method is a blocking method that will wait for the job to finish. Alternatively,
``job.clear()`` can be called to clear the cache, allowing ``job.status`` to re-fetch the job status.


When running local or remote jobs, a strawberryfields.Result object will be returned. This object works slightly differently in Strawberry Fields v0.20.0, compared to the strawberryfields.api.Result object in Strawberry Fields v0.19.0.

While Result.samples should return the same type and shape as before, the Result.all_samples property has been renamed to Result.samples_dict. This property returns the samples as a dictionary with corresponding measured modes as keys.

>>> res = eng.run(prog, shots=3)
>>> res.samples
array([[1, 0], [0, 1], [1, 1]])
>>> res.samples_dict
{0: [np.array([1, 0, 1])], 1: [np.array([0, 1, 1])]}

All instances of Result.all_samples must be replaced with Result.samples_dict in Strawberry Fields v0.20.0.

Device specification

The DeviceSpec no longer has a connection object, and is simply a container for a remote device specification. The target argument has been removed in favour of using the target entry in the device specification dictionary.

Creating a DeviceSpec object in Strawberry Fields v0.19.0:

connection = sf.api.Connection()
spec = {"target": "X8", "layout": "", "modes": 8, "gate_parameters": {}}
device_spec = sf.api.DeviceSpec(target="X8", spec=spec, connection=connection)

The (semantically) equivalent code in Strawberry Fields v0.20.0 is

spec = {"target": "X8", "layout": "", "modes": 8, "gate_parameters": {}}
device_spec = sf.DeviceSpec(spec=spec)


The remote specification dictionary keys “target”, “layout”, “modes” and “gate_parameters” are mandatory in Strawberry Fields v0.20.0. If one or more are missing, a DeviceSpec object cannot be created.